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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 417; doi:10.3390/ijerph13040417

Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

1
Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA
2
Genome Technology Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
3
Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3930 KB, uploaded 12 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarettes; transcriptome; central nervous system; nicotine; development; RNA Sequencing; frontal cortex; pathway analysis e-cigarettes; transcriptome; central nervous system; nicotine; development; RNA Sequencing; frontal cortex; pathway analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lauterstein, D.E.; Tijerina, P.B.; Corbett, K.; Akgol Oksuz, B.; Shen, S.S.; Gordon, T.; Klein, C.B.; Zelikoff, J.T. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 417.

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