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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 348; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030348

Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract

1
Anhui Key Laboratory of Tobacco Chemistry, Technology Center, China Tobacco Anhui Industrial CO., LTD., Hefei 230088, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
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Abstract

The present study investigated the influence of the cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. TrxR is a selenoenzyme with a selenocysteine (Sec) residue exposed on the enzyme’s surface. This unique Sec residue is particularly susceptible to modification by numerous types of electrophiles, leading to inactivation of TrxR and consequent cytotoxicity. Cigarette smoke contains various electrophiles, and the present study showed that CSE could inhibit intracellular TrxR through causing crosslinking and alkylation of TrxR1. TrxR inhibitory capacities of various CSEs were evaluated by using mouse-liver homogenate. Among the CSEs prepared from 18 commercial cigarette brands, TrxR inhibitory capacities of the maximum and the minimum had a 2.5-fold difference. Importantly, CSE’s inhibitory capacity greatly paralleled its cytotoxic potency in all cell lines used. Compared to cytotoxic assays, which have been widely used for evaluating cigarette toxicity but are not suitable for simultaneously examining a large number of cigarette samples, the present method was simple and rapid with a high-throughput feature and thus could be used as an auxiliary means to predict the cytotoxicity of a large number of cigarette samples, making it possible to extensively screen numerous agricultural and industrial measures that potentially affect cigarette safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: cigarette smoke; thioredoxin reductase; cytotoxicity; high throughput cigarette smoke; thioredoxin reductase; cytotoxicity; high throughput
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Ning, M.; Xu, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhao, G.; Cao, Q.; Zhang, J. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 348.

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