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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 342; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030342

Heavy Metal Accumulation is Associated with Molecular and Pathological Perturbations in Liver of Variola louti from the Jeddah Coast of Red Sea

1
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science; Production of Bioproducts for Industrial Applications Research Group and Experimental Biochemistry Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Marine Biology Department, Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
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Abstract

Large amounts of waste water are discharged daily from the Jeddah Metropolitan Area into the Red Sea. Sewage draining into the Red Sea causes widespread chemical pollution that is toxic to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of pollution and assess the presence of heavy metals in fish tissue and study their association with biological and biochemical alterations. The average concentrations of heavy metals found in hepatic tissues of Variola louti fish from the polluted area, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn, were 1.74, 9.69, 47.48, 4020.01 and 229.47 µg/g liver, respectively, that were significantly higher than that of samples taken from reference area (0.24, 1.98, 20.12, 721.93, 129.21 µg/g liver, respectively). The fold change of heavy metals in fish from the polluted area with respect of that of the reference area followed the order Cd > Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn. Analysis of nuclear DNA revealed that hepatic tissues of fish samples from the polluted area showed a significant increase in apoptotic cells as detected by flow cytometry and formation DNA-ladder. In addition, hepatic sections from polluted area fishes showed more fibrotic changes and collagen deposition by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining, respectively, compared to samples taken from the reference area. Moreover, the electrophoretic patterns of proteins of liver of fishes caught at the polluted area showed different patterns of proteins from that of the reference with bands at 42, 130 and 140 kDa, which is in a good agreement with the molecular weight of collagen type III. In conclusion, there were significant changes in the tissues of fishes in the polluted area at the cellular and the molecular levels that may be associated with an accumulation of heavy metals. Assessment of fishes as a sensitive biomonitor for the pollution of surface waters that may affect general health of human and wild life is conceivable. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic pollution; heavy metals; apoptosis; DNA damage; fibrosis; cytotoxicity aquatic pollution; heavy metals; apoptosis; DNA damage; fibrosis; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohamed, S.A.; Elshal, M.F.; Kumosani, T.A.; Mal, A.O.; Ahmed, Y.M.; Almulaiky, Y.Q.; Asseri, A.H.; Zamzami, M.A. Heavy Metal Accumulation is Associated with Molecular and Pathological Perturbations in Liver of Variola louti from the Jeddah Coast of Red Sea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 342.

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