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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 333; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030333

Indicators for Monitoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Review of Indicator Selection Methods

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 21 November 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
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Abstract

Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) is important to track progress, improve accountability, and demonstrate impacts of efforts to improve conditions and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Indicator selection methods enable robust monitoring of WaSH projects and conditions. However, selection methods are not always used and there are no commonly-used methods for selecting WaSH indicators. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of indicator selection methods used in WaSH-related fields. We present a summary of indicator selection methods for environment, international development, and water. We identified six methodological stages for selecting indicators for WaSH: define the purpose and scope; select a conceptual framework; search for candidate indicators; determine selection criteria; score indicators against criteria; and select a final suite of indicators. This summary of indicator selection methods provides a foundation for the critical assessment of existing methods. It can be used to inform future efforts to construct indicator sets in WaSH and related fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: criteria; method; monitoring and evaluation; Sustainable Development Goals; WaSH; water criteria; method; monitoring and evaluation; Sustainable Development Goals; WaSH; water
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwemlein, S.; Cronk, R.; Bartram, J. Indicators for Monitoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Review of Indicator Selection Methods. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 333.

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