Next Article in Journal
Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure
Previous Article in Journal
A Survey of Accidental Hypothermia Knowledge among Navy Members in China and the Implications for Training
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 314; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030314
Article

A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
 and
*
Viral Hepatitis Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro 210360-040, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 November 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [289 KB, uploaded 11 March 2016]
SciFeed

Abstract

(1) Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus; hepatitis C virus; hepatitis B virus; prevalence human immunodeficiency virus; hepatitis C virus; hepatitis B virus; prevalence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Flores, G.L.; de Almeida, A.J.; Miguel, J.C.; Cruz, H.M.; Portilho, M.M.; de P. Scalioni, L.; Marques, V.A.; Lewis-Ximenez, L.L.; Lampe, E.; Melo Villar, L. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 314.

View more citation formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert