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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 198; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020198

Health Impact Assessment for Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Germany—Quantifying Estimates for Ischaemic Heart Diseases, COPD, and Stroke

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
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Abstract

Evidence of the adverse health effects attributable to second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is available. This study aims to quantify the impact of SHS exposure on ischaemic heart diseases (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and stroke in Germany. Therefore, this study estimated and forecasted the morbidity for the three outcomes in the German population. Furthermore, a health impact assessment was performed using DYNAMO-HIA, which is a generic software tool applying a Markov model. Overall 687,254 IHD cases, 231,973 COPD cases, and 288,015 stroke cases were estimated to be attributable to SHS exposure in Germany for 2014. Under the assumption that the population prevalence of these diseases and the prevalence of SHS exposure remain constant, the total number of cases will increase due to demographic aging. Assuming a total eradication of SHS exposure beginning in 2014 leads to an estimated reduction of 50% in cases, compared to the reference scenario in 2040 for all three diseases. The results highlight the relevance of SHS exposure because it affects several chronic disease conditions and has a major impact on the population’s health. Therefore, public health campaigns to protect non-smokers are urgently needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Health Impact Assessment; second-hand smoke; environmental epidemiology; ischaemic heart diseases; COPD; stroke Health Impact Assessment; second-hand smoke; environmental epidemiology; ischaemic heart diseases; COPD; stroke
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fischer, F.; Kraemer, A. Health Impact Assessment for Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Germany—Quantifying Estimates for Ischaemic Heart Diseases, COPD, and Stroke. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 198.

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