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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 179; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020179

Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

Human Environments Analysis Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
Transportation Research Lab (TransLAB), School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Harry Timmermans, Astrid Kemperman and Pauline van den Berg
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 30 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of the Built Environment on Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [271 KB, uploaded 30 January 2016]


This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. View Full-Text
Keywords: binary logit model; barriers; active transportation; walking; time availability; walkability; built environment; social environment binary logit model; barriers; active transportation; walking; time availability; walkability; built environment; social environment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Clark, A.F.; Scott, D.M. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 179.

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