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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 151; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020151

Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development

1
Department of Physical Education, University Regional of Cariri, Ceará 63112-012, Brazil
2
College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B2, Canada
3
Centro de Investigação, Formação, Intervenção e Inovação em Desporto (CIFI2D), Kinanthropometry Lab, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto 4200-450, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: María M. Morales Suárez-Varela
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 22 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Adolescents and Nutrition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [648 KB, uploaded 22 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

This paper presents fat mass centile charts for Brazilian youth and investigates the roles of socioeconomic status and physical fitness (PF) on fat mass (FM) development. Two northeast Brazilian samples were used: a cross-sectional sample of 3659 (1921 girls) aged 8 to 16 years and a mixed-longitudinal series of cohorts (8–10, 10–12, 12–14, 14–16 years) with 250 boys and 250 girls. A measure of somatic maturity was used as a marker of biological maturation; PF comprised agility, explosive and static strength, and aerobic capacity. Socioeconomic status was based on school attended; public or private. Slaughter’s anthropometric equations were used to estimate FM. Percentile charts was constructed using the LMS method. HLM (Hierarchical Linear Model) 7 software modeled FM changes, identifying inter-individual differences and their covariates. Girls and boys had different FM percentile values at each age; FM increased nonlinearly in both girls and boys. Higher PF levels reduced FM changes across time in both sexes. Sex-specific non-linear FM references were provided representing important tools for nutritionists, pediatriciann and educators. Physical fitness levels were found to act as a protective factor in FM increases. As such, we emphasize PF importance as a putative health marker and highlight the need for its systematic development across the school years. View Full-Text
Keywords: reference percentile curves; fat mass; changes; children; adolescents reference percentile curves; fat mass; changes; children; adolescents
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, S.; Baxter-Jones, A.; Maia, J. Fat Mass Centile Charts for Brazilian Children and Adolescents and the Identification of the Roles of Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness on Fat Mass Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 151.

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