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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1250; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121250

Exploration of Pedestrian Head Injuries—Collision Parameter Relationships through a Combination of Retrospective Analysis and Finite Element Method

1
Institute for Traffic Medicine, Department 4th, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China
2
Transit College, Chongqing Jiotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Suren Chen and Feng Chen
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Injury Prevention)
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Abstract

There are a very limited number of reports concerning the relationship between pedestrian head injuries and collision parameters through a combination of statistical analysis methods and finite element method (FEM). This study aims to explore the characteristics of pedestrian head injuries in car–pedestrian collisions at different parameters by using the two means above. A retrospective analysis of pedestrian head injuries was performed based on detailed investigation data of 61 car–pedestrian collision cases. The head damage assessment parameters (head injury criterion (HIC), peak stress on the skull, maximal principal strain for the brain) in car–pedestrian simulation experiments with four contact angles and three impact velocities were obtained by FEM. The characteristics of the pedestrian head injuries were discussed by comparing and analyzing the statistical analysis results and finite element analysis results. The statistical analysis results demonstrated a significant difference in skull fractures, contusion and laceration of brain and head injuries on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS)3+ was found at different velocities (p < 0.05) and angles (p < 0.05). The simulation results showed that, in pedestrian head-to-hood impacts, the values of head damage assessment parameters increased with impact velocities. At the same velocity, these values from the impact on the pedestrian’s back were successively greater than on the front or the side. Furthermore, head injury reconstruction and prediction results of two selected cases were consistent with the real injuries. Overall, it was further spelled out that, for shorter stature pedestrians, increased head impact velocity results in greater head injury severity in car–pedestrian collision, especially in pedestrian head-to-hood impacts. Under a back impact, the head has also been found to be at greater damage risk for shorter stature pedestrians, which may have implications on automotive design and pedestrian protection research if prevention and treatment of these injuries is to be prioritized over head injuries under a front or side impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: car–pedestrian collision; head injuries; retrospective analysis; FEM car–pedestrian collision; head injuries; retrospective analysis; FEM
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Liu, W.; Su, S.; Qiu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Yin, Z. Exploration of Pedestrian Head Injuries—Collision Parameter Relationships through a Combination of Retrospective Analysis and Finite Element Method. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1250.

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