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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1181; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121181

Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

1
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 106 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Saud University, King Khalid Road, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
3
Institute for Economic Forecasting-NIER, Romanian Academy, Bucharest 050711, Romania
4
Department of Basic & Clinical Sciences, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 106 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
5
Department of Humanities and Communication, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 106 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1353 KB, uploaded 25 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. View Full-Text
Keywords: water scarcity; waterborne diseases; water pollution; ecological economics; economic growth water scarcity; waterborne diseases; water pollution; ecological economics; economic growth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polimeni, J.M.; Almalki, A.; Iorgulescu, R.I.; Albu, L.-L.; Parker, W.M.; Chandrasekara, R. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1181.

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