Next Article in Journal
Auditing the Immunization Data Quality from Routine Reports in Shangyu District, East China
Next Article in Special Issue
Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan
Previous Article in Journal
Putting the Barker Theory into the Future: Time to Act on Preventing Pediatric Obesity
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Indoor Monitoring System for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Internet of Things Architecture
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1154;

Respiratory Diseases in University Students Associated with Exposure to Residential Dampness or Mold

Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada
Public Health Department of Eastern Townships, 300 King East, Sherbrooke, QC J1G 1B1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Cincinelli and Tania Martellini
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Quality and Health 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [301 KB, uploaded 18 November 2016]


University students are frequently exposed to residential dampness or mold (i.e., visible mold, mold odor, dampness, or water leaks), a well-known contributor to asthma, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections. This study aims to: (a) describe the prevalence of these respiratory diseases among university students; and (b) examine the independent contribution of residential dampness or mold to these diseases. An online survey was conducted in March 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada). Validated questions and scores were used to assess self-reported respiratory diseases (i.e., asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections), residential dampness or mold, and covariates (e.g., student characteristics). Using logistic regressions, the crude and adjusted odd ratios between residential dampness or mold and self-reported respiratory diseases were examined. Results from the participating students (n = 2097; response rate: 8.1%) showed high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (32.6%; 95% CI: 30.6–34.7), asthma-like symptoms (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1–25.8) and respiratory infections (19.4%; 95% CI: 17.7–21.2). After adjustment, exposure to residential dampness or mold was associated with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01–1.55) and asthma-like symptoms (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37–2.11), but not with respiratory infections (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85–1.36). Among symptomatic students, this exposure was also associated with uncontrolled and burdensome respiratory symptoms (p < 0.01). University students report a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, asthma-like symptoms and respiratory infections. A common indoor hazard, residential dampness or mold, may play a role in increasing atopic respiratory diseases and their suboptimal control in young adults. These results emphasize the importance for public health organizations to tackle poor housing conditions, especially amongst university students who should be considered “at-risk”. View Full-Text
Keywords: dampness; mold; housing; university students; asthma; allergic rhinitis; respiratory infections dampness; mold; housing; university students; asthma; allergic rhinitis; respiratory infections
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lanthier-Veilleux, M.; Baron, G.; Généreux, M. Respiratory Diseases in University Students Associated with Exposure to Residential Dampness or Mold. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1154.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top