Next Article in Journal
Comparison of Secular Trends in Cervical Cancer Mortality in China and the United States: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
The Association of Serum Bisphenol A with Thyroid Autoimmunity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1150; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111150

Structure, Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Culex pipiens Complex in Shanghai, China

1
Department of Public Health Microbiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 232000, China
2
Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 232000, China
3
Department of Vectors Prevention, Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Huangpu District, Shanghai 232000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3363 KB, uploaded 17 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Background: Culex pipiens molestus was first reported in Shanghai in 2010. The population structures and seasonal distributions of Culex pipiens subspecies C. p. molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus are not well known. Methods: From late February to November 2013, we conducted daily field surveillance of mosquitoes at eight sites at two green lands and three residential areas in downtown Shanghai. Morphological comparison and DV/D ratios (DV/D is an indicator of mosquito taxonomy) were used to identify adult mosquitoes. Results: The distribution curves of the Culex pipiens complex members indicated seasonal fluctuations. The temperature range of 20–25 °C was the most suitable for adult activity. Micro-environmental factors may differentiate the complex population structures. Hybridization between C. p. pallens and C. p. quinquefasciatus was common and neither “DV/D = 0.40” nor “DV/D = 0.50” can distinguish these subspecies and their hybrids. Conclusion: the population structure of the Culex pipiens complex is complex and characterized by significant hybridization. Measures other than DV/D ratios are needed for the discrimination of subspecies. The C. p. molestus invasion might result in the transmission of novel vector-borne diseases in Shanghai. View Full-Text
Keywords: Culex pipiens complex; population structure; seasonality; micro-environment; DV/D ratio; C. p. molestus; downtown Shanghai Culex pipiens complex; population structure; seasonality; micro-environment; DV/D ratio; C. p. molestus; downtown Shanghai
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, Q.; Xiong, C.; Su, F.; Cao, H.; Zhou, J.; Jiang, Q. Structure, Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Culex pipiens Complex in Shanghai, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1150.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top