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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1123; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111123

Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes

1
UOC di Medicina Interna e d’Urgenza Edificio 4, Piano 3, AOU “Policlinico-V. Emanuele”, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo (CPCT), “Policlinico-V. Emanuele”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
3
Internal and Emergency Medicine, “Policlinico-V. Emanuele”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
4
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospital NHS Trust, Harefield Hospital, Hill End Road, Harefield UB9 6JH, UK
5
MCAU ARNAS Garibaldi, 95100 Catania, Italy
6
Rex Hospital, UNC Health System, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 2 May 2016 / Revised: 5 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract

Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine, which may help smokers with quitting or reducing their tobacco consumption. No data is available regarding the health effects of ECs use among smokers with arterial hypertension and whether regular use results in blood pressure (BP) changes. We investigated long-term changes in resting BP and level of BP control in hypertensive smokers who quit or reduced substantially their tobacco consumption by switching to ECs. A medical records review of patients with hypertension was conducted to identify patients reporting regular daily use of ECs on at least two consecutive follow-up visits. Regularly smoking hypertensive patients were included as a reference group. A marked reduction in cigarette consumption was observed in ECs users (n = 43) though consumption remained unchanged in the control group (n = 46). Compared to baseline, at 12 months (follow-up visit 2) decline in cigarette consumption was associated with significant reductions in median (25th-, 75th-centile) systolic BP (140 (134.5, 144) to 130 (123.5, 138.5) mmHg; p < 0.001) and diastolic BP (86 (78, 90) to 80 (74.5, 90) mmHg; p = 0.006). No significant changes were observed in the control group. As expected, decline in cigarette consumption in the ECs users was also associated with improved BP control. The study concludes that regular ECs use may aid smokers with arterial hypertension reduce or abstain from cigarette smoking, with only trivial post-cessation weight gain. This resulted in improvements in systolic and diastolic BP as well as better BP control. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking cessation; electronic cigarette; blood pressure; hypertension; tobacco harm reduction smoking cessation; electronic cigarette; blood pressure; hypertension; tobacco harm reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polosa, R.; Morjaria, J.B.; Caponnetto, P.; Battaglia, E.; Russo, C.; Ciampi, C.; Adams, G.; Bruno, C.M. Blood Pressure Control in Smokers with Arterial Hypertension Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1123.

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