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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1101; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111101

Association between Secondhand Smoke in Hospitality Venues and Urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol Concentrations in Non-Smoking Staff

1
Department of Environmental Health Research, Seoul Medical Center, 156 Sinnae-ro, Jungnang-gu, Seoul 131-795, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea
3
Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea
4
Department of Preventive Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine, 119 Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan 448-701, Korea
5
National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si 410-769, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Doyle
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [291 KB, uploaded 8 November 2016]

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between urinary cotinine and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) concentrations in non-smoking staff and the indoor levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in hospitality venues that allow smoking, with respect to demographic and indoor environmental factors. We evaluated 62 hospitality venues that allowed smoking in Seoul, Korea. A real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Field technicians recorded indoor environmental characteristics. One non-smoking staff member in each hospitality venue was tested for urinary cotinine and total NNAL concentrations. Demographic characteristics were obtained from self-reported staff questionnaires. Natural-log (ln)-transformed PM2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with the ln-transformed cotinine (r = 0.31) and the total NNAL concentrations (r = 0.32). In multivariable regression analysis, the urinary cotinine concentrations of the staff members were significantly correlated with indoor PM2.5 concentrations; those with the highest concentrations were more likely to be women or staff members that worked in venues with a volume <375 m3. Total NNAL concentrations were significantly correlated only with indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Indoor PM2.5 may be used as an indicator for urinary cotinine and total NNAL concentrations in non-smoking staff members in hospitality venues that allow smoking. View Full-Text
Keywords: cotinine; hospitality venue; NNAL; PM2.5; secondhand smoke cotinine; hospitality venue; NNAL; PM2.5; secondhand smoke
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.; Lee, K.; Kwon, H.-J.; Lee, D.H.; Kim, K. Association between Secondhand Smoke in Hospitality Venues and Urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol Concentrations in Non-Smoking Staff. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1101.

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