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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1094; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111094

An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

1
School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
School of Public Health, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, China
3
Department of Radiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuchang District, Wuhan 430072, China
4
The Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, China
5
Chenzhou City Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chenzhou 423000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Janet Seeley
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [290 KB, uploaded 7 November 2016]

Abstract

Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre-test knowledge scores on universal precautions were relatively high. Correct answers about universal precautions improved significantly from pre-test (83.71%) to post-test (89.58%; χ2 = 25.00, p = 0.00). After the intervention, nurses’ attitude scores improved significantly from pre-test (3.80 ± 0.79) to post-test (4.06 ± 0.75; t = 3.74, p = 0.00). Conclusions: Integrated educational interventions enhance nurses’ knowledge of risk reduction for occupationally acquired HIV infections and improve the observance of universal precautionary procedures. This enhancement allows nurses to assume a teaching role for prevention and management of HIV/AIDS. View Full-Text
Keywords: nurses; occupational exposure; HIV; knowledge; early intervention nurses; occupational exposure; HIV; knowledge; early intervention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

He, L.; Lu, Z.; Huang, J.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, J.; Bi, Y.; Li, J. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1094.

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