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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1089; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111089

Soil-Plant Metal Relations in Panax notoginseng: An Ecosystem Health Risk Assessment

1,2,3,†
,
3,†
,
4
,
2
,
3,5,* and 2,*
1
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Kunming Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Famous-Region Drug, Key Laboratory of Panax notoginseng Resources Sustainable Development and Utilization of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
3
Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650205, China
4
Chinese Medica Resources Center, China Academy of Chinese Medicinal Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
5
College of Pharmacy, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 5 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1111 KB, uploaded 5 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study features a survey of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg and Cu) in root and cultivation soils of Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng), carried out in China’s Yunnan Province. The average contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, and Cu in the soil were 61.6, 0.4, 102.4, 57.1, 0.3, and 35.1 mg·kg−1, respectively. The heavy metals’ pollution indexes can be ranked as follows: As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Cr > Pb. The proportion of soil samples at slight, middle, strong, very strong, and extremely strong levels of potential environmental risk had values of 5.41%, 21.62%, 35.14%, 10.81%, and 27.03%, respectively. The potential environment risk index (RI) showed that 29.73% out of the total sample sites were above the level of strong and extremely strong. The ranges of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, and Cu content in tuber were 0.04–3.26, 0.04–0.33, 0.22–5.4, 0.10–1.8, 0.00–0.02, and 5.0–20.9 mg·kg−1, respectively. In combination with P. notoginseng consumption data, the estimated heavy metal daily intakes (EDIs) were 0.08–0.23, 0.006–0.019, 0.17–0.52, 0.04–0.12, 0.001–0.002, and 0.59–1.77 μg·kg−1·bw/day. All target hazard quotients (THQs) of individual elements and hazard indexes (HI) were less than one. The present study indicates that most of the P. notoginseng cultivation soil in the province of Yunnan presented slight and moderate ecological risk. Thus, more attention should be given to the heavy metals As, Cd, and Hg when selecting planting areas for the cultivation of P. notoginseng. Health risks associated with the intake of a single element or consumption of the combined metals through P. notoginseng are absent. View Full-Text
Keywords: Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen; heavy metal; Chinese herb medical; risk Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen; heavy metal; Chinese herb medical; risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ou, X.; Wang, L.; Guo, L.; Cui, X.; Liu, D.; Yang, Y. Soil-Plant Metal Relations in Panax notoginseng: An Ecosystem Health Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1089.

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