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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1081; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111081

Phenanthrene and Pyrene Modify the Composition and Structure of the Cultivable Endophytic Bacterial Community in Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam)

Institute of Organic Contaminant Control and Soil Remediation, College of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 29 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract

This study provides new insights into the dynamics of bacterial community structure during phytoremediation. The communities of cultivable autochthonous endophytic bacteria in ryegrass exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with regard to their potential to biodegrade PAHs. Bacterial counts and 16S rRNA gene sequence were used in the microbiological evaluation. A total of 33 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from ryegrass plants, which represented 15 different genera and eight different classes, respectively. Moreover, PAH contamination modified the composition and structure of the endophytic bacterial community in the plants. Bacillus sp., Pantoea sp., Pseudomonas sp., Arthrobacter sp., Pedobacter sp. and Delftia sp. were only isolated from the seedlings exposed to PAHs. Furthermore, the dominant genera in roots shifted from Enterobacter sp. to Serratia sp., Bacillus sp., Pantoea sp., and Stenotrophomonas sp., which could highly biodegrade phenanthrene (PHE). However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial community was decreased by exposure to the mixture of PAHs, and increased by respective exposure to PHE and pyrene (PYR), while the abundance was increased by PAH exposure. The results clearly indicated that the exposure of plants to PAHs would be beneficial for improving the effectiveness of phytoremediation of PAHs. View Full-Text
Keywords: community structure; cultivable endophytic bacteria; diversity; biodegradation; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons community structure; cultivable endophytic bacteria; diversity; biodegradation; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, X.; Jin, L.; Sun, K.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Ling, W. Phenanthrene and Pyrene Modify the Composition and Structure of the Cultivable Endophytic Bacterial Community in Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1081.

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