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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1051; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111051

Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

1
Centre for Climate Research and Development, COMSAS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad Campus, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
2
Division of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, Lund 22100, Sweden
3
Civil Engineering Research Group, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, The University of Salford, The Crescent, Salford M5 4WT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [468 KB, uploaded 27 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle the forthcoming challenges associated with water resources management. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; developing country; disease; environmental management; freshwater; pollution; sustainability; urbanization; wastewater; water resources bacteria; developing country; disease; environmental management; freshwater; pollution; sustainability; urbanization; wastewater; water resources
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, T.; Scholz, M.; Al-Faraj, F.; Niaz, W. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1051.

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