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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 983; doi:10.3390/ijerph13100983

Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

1
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago 683-8504, Japan
2
Department of Data Science, Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8562, Japan
3
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Faculty of Medicine, Kinki University, Ohnohigashi 377-2, Osakasayama 589-0014, Japan
4
Center for Promoting Next-Generation Highly Advanced Medicine, Tottori University Hospital, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago 683-8504, Japan
5
The Board of Directors, Tottori University, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago 683-8504, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
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Abstract

The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate air pollutants; pro-inflammatory cytokine; respiratory symptom; schoolchildren particulate air pollutants; pro-inflammatory cytokine; respiratory symptom; schoolchildren
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MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, M.; Noma, H.; Kurai, J.; Sano, H.; Hantan, D.; Ueki, M.; Kitano, H.; Shimizu, E. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 983.

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