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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 947; doi:10.3390/ijerph13100947

Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases

1
Pos-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP 05508-010, Brazil
2
Center of Earth System Science, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos SP 12227-010, Brazil
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo SP 01246-903, Brazil
4
Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 20550-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
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Abstract

Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions) with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5–10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3) and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0) per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6) per 10 μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO42−, NO3, NH4+ and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO42− in PM2.5–10 and K+ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; chemical constituents; hospital admission; particulate matter; time series air pollution; chemical constituents; hospital admission; particulate matter; time series
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, T.M.; Forti, M.C.; de Freitas, C.U.; Nascimento, F.P.; Junger, W.L.; Gouveia, N. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 947.

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