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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 936; doi:10.3390/ijerph13100936

Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
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Abstract

Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. View Full-Text
Keywords: menopausal age; chronic disease; elderly women menopausal age; chronic disease; elderly women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Wang, S.; Kanu, J.S.; You, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Li, B.; Tao, Y.; Kou, C. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 936.

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