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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1007; doi:10.3390/ijerph13101007

Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique

1
Food and Nutrition Program, Environment and Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait
2
The Public Authority for Food and Nutrition, Bayan 43600, Kuwait
3
Stable Isotope Biochemistry Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Rankine Avenue, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF, UK
Current address: Pediatric Clinical Research, Dasman Diabetes Institute, P.O. Box 1180, Dasman 15462, Kuwait.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract

The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in 35 obese 7–9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys). Total body water (TBW) and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of 18O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM), using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM) was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. Body weight was not statistically different but TBW was significantly higher (p = 0.018) in boys (44.9% ± 3.3%) than girls (42.4% ± 3.0%), while girls had significantly higher estimated FM (45.2 ± 3.9 weight % versus 41.6% ± 4.3%; p = 0.014). TEE was significantly higher in boys (2395 ± 349 kcal/day) compared with girls (1978 ± 169 kcal/day); p = 0.001. Estimated physical activity level (PAL) was significantly higher in boys; 1.61 ± 0.167 versus 1.51 ± 0.870; p = 0.034. Our results provide the first dataset of TEE in 7–9 years old obese Kuwaiti children and highlight important gender differences to be considered during the development of school based interventions targeted to combat childhood obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: total energy expenditure; body composition; obesity; children total energy expenditure; body composition; obesity; children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Davidsson, L.; Al-Ghanim, J.; Al-Ati, T.; Al-Hamad, N.; Al-Mutairi, A.; Al-Olayan, L.; Preston, T. Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1007.

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