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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 75; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010075

Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1
Northern Ireland Centre for Food & Health (NICHE), University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland
2
Departments of Dentistry, Environmental Medicine, and Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
3
Department of Rheumatology, Altnagelvin Area Hospital, Glenshane Road, Londonderry BT47 6SB, Northern Ireland
4
Department of Rheumatology, Musgrave Park Hospital, Stockman’s Lane, Belfast BT9 7JB, Northern Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
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Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg) and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG). Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029) and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038). Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019). Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury; lupus; disease activity mercury; lupus; disease activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Crowe, W.; Doherty, L.; Watson, G.; Armstrong, D.; Ball, E.; Magee, P.; Allsopp, P.; Bell, A.; Strain, J.J.; McSorley, E. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 75.

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