Next Article in Journal
Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Next Article in Special Issue
Profile of HIV-Infected Hispanics with Pancytopenia
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Inpatient Hospitalization Costs: A Comparative Study of Micronesians, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, and Whites in Hawai‘i
Article Menu

Export Article

Erratum published on 29 March 2016, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 367.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 42; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010042

The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

1
African American Studies Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2
Maryland Population Research Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
3
Women’s Studies Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
4
Consortium on Race, Gender and Ethnicity, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
5
National Center for Health Research, Washington, DC 20036, USA
6
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mark Edberg, Barbara E. Hayes, Valerie Montgomery Rice and Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 16 August 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [518 KB, uploaded 29 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining income as a better predictor in the SES-inflammation pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: C-reactive protein; education; inflammation burden; race/ethnicity C-reactive protein; education; inflammation burden; race/ethnicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dinwiddie, G.Y.; Zambrana, R.E.; Doamekpor, L.A.; Lopez, L. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 42.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top