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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 143; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010143

Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development

1
Education, Training, and Research, Inc., Scotts Valley, CA 95066, USA
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3
Neil Klepeis and Associates, Environmental Health Research and Consulting, Aromas, CA 95004, USA
4
Win-River Resort & Casino, Redding Rancheria, Redding, CA 96001, USA
5
Shasta County Public Health Tobacco Education Program, Shasta County Public Health, Redding, CA 96001, USA
6
Repace Associates, Inc., Secondhand Smoke Consultants, Bowie, MD 20720, USA
7
Buchting Consulting, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
8
Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), Oakland, CA 94612, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Icro Maremmani
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1132 KB, uploaded 20 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: air quality monitoring; smoke-free gambling; Native Americans; American Indians; hospitality business; worker protection policy; occupational exposure reduction; smoking; airborne nicotine; urinary cotinine; PM2.5; secondhand tobacco smoke air quality monitoring; smoke-free gambling; Native Americans; American Indians; hospitality business; worker protection policy; occupational exposure reduction; smoking; airborne nicotine; urinary cotinine; PM2.5; secondhand tobacco smoke
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klepeis, N.E.; Dhaliwal, N.; Hayward, G.; Acevedo-Bolton, V.; Ott, W.R.; Read, N.; Layton, S.; Jiang, R.; Cheng, K.-C.; Hildemann, L.M.; Repace, J.L.; Taylor, S.; Ong, S.-L.; Buchting, F.O.; Lee, J.P.; Moore, R.S. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 143.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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