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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 120; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010120

Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

1
Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
2
Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang. 4138 Linglong Road, Qingzhou, 262500, Shandong Province, China
3
Department of Preventative Medicine, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang Province, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zubair Kabir
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 27 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2319 KB, uploaded 12 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: cigarette smoking; electronic cigarette; meta-analysis cigarette smoking; electronic cigarette; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, M.; Wang, J.-W.; Cao, S.-S.; Wang, H.-Q.; Hu, R.-Y. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 120.

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