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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 10806-10819; doi:10.3390/ijerph120910806

Effects of Nano-CeO2 with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

1
Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123, China
2
Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
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Abstract

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO2 with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO2 at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO2 were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO2 were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO2 entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO2 with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell’s ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO2, the rod-like nano-CeO2 has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: nano-CeO2; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; MMP; ROS; GSH; antioxidant nano-CeO2; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; MMP; ROS; GSH; antioxidant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, L.; Ai, W.; Zhai, Y.; Li, H.; Zhou, K.; Chen, H. Effects of Nano-CeO2 with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 10806-10819.

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