Next Article in Journal
Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana
Previous Article in Journal
Affects of Anxiety and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Benign Breast Lumps Diagnosed via Ultrasonography in China
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 10602-10619; doi:10.3390/ijerph120910602

Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

1
Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, Bielefeld 33615, Germany
2
Federal Environment Agency, Section Exposure Assessment and Environmental Health Indicators, Corrensplatz 1, Berlin 14195, Germany
3
Department of Epidemiology and International Public Health, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, Bielefeld 33615, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [996 KB, uploaded 28 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Air pollution; particulate matter; environmental burden of disease; Years of Life Lost (YLL); Kerala; India Air pollution; particulate matter; environmental burden of disease; Years of Life Lost (YLL); Kerala; India
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tobollik, M.; Razum, O.; Wintermeyer, D.; Plass, D. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 10602-10619.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top