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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 10575-10586; doi:10.3390/ijerph120910575

Trichloroethylene and Its Oxidative Metabolites Enhance the Activated State and Th1 Cytokine Gene Expression in Jurkat Cells

1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Toxicological Research and Risk Assessment for Food Safety, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 22 August 2015 / Accepted: 23 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [381 KB, uploaded 1 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an occupational and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and TCE exposure will increase the risk of autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases. T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of TCE-related immune disorders, but the effect of TCE and its oxidative metabolites, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), on the activation of human T cells is still unknown. In this study, Jurkat cells were pre-treated with TCE, TCA and DCA overnight and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin for another 4, 8 and 24 hours. IL-2 secretion was detected by ELISA; the expressions of CD25 and CD69 were tested by flow cytometry; and IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA expression levels were investigated by real-time PCR. The results showed that TCE and its oxidative metabolites, TCA and DCA, significantly enhanced IL-2 releasing and the expression of T cell activation markers, CD25 and CD69. Consistent with this result, these compounds markedly up-regulated the expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that TCE and its metabolites, TCA and DCA, might enhance the activation of T cells and disrupt various activities of peripheral T cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: trichloroethylene; trichloroacetic acid; dichloroacetic acid; IL-2; Jurkat cells trichloroethylene; trichloroacetic acid; dichloroacetic acid; IL-2; Jurkat cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, Y.; Wei, X.; Hao, W. Trichloroethylene and Its Oxidative Metabolites Enhance the Activated State and Th1 Cytokine Gene Expression in Jurkat Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 10575-10586.

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