Next Article in Journal
Metabolic Degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. HY
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Milk: A Public Health Implication
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 10276-10299; doi:10.3390/ijerph120910276

Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media

1
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
2
School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
3
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
4
Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [953 KB, uploaded 25 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

The biosand filter (BSF) is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006–2007) guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite) did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction), virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: slow sand filter; intermittent; household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS); point-of-use (POU) slow sand filter; intermittent; household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS); point-of-use (POU)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Elliott, M.; Stauber, C.E.; DiGiano, F.A.; de Aceituno, A.F.; Sobsey, M.D. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 10276-10299.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top