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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 8790-8810; doi:10.3390/ijerph120808790

Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers’ Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012

1
Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7595, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
3
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
4
Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Box 90519, Durham, NC 27708, USA
5
Nicholas School of Environment, Duke University, Box 90519, Durham, NC 27708, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Coral Gartner
Received: 20 May 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [732 KB, uploaded 28 July 2015]

Abstract

The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers’ tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. View Full-Text
Keywords: homosexuality; marketing; smoking; residence characteristics; commerce; health status disparities homosexuality; marketing; smoking; residence characteristics; commerce; health status disparities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.G.L.; Goldstein, A.O.; Pan, W.K.; Ribisl, K.M. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers’ Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 8790-8810.

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