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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 8526-8541; doi:10.3390/ijerph120708526

The Pattern of Variation between Diarrhea and Malaria Coexistence with Corresponding Risk Factors in, Chikhwawa, Malawi: A Bivariate Multilevel Analysis

1
Centre for Water, Sanitation, Health and Appropriate Technology Development (WASHTED), University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, P/B 303, Blantyre, Malawi
2
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, P/B 303, Blantyre, Malawi
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, UK
4
Scotland Chikhwawa Health Initiative (SCHI), P.O. Box 30376, Blantyre 3, Malawi
5
Africa Academy for Environmental Health, P.O. Box 15574, Sinoville 0129, South Africa
6
Department of Statistics and Population Studies, 340 Mandume Ndemufayo Avenue, Pionerspark, P/Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
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Abstract

Developing countries face a huge burden of infectious diseases, a number of which co-exist. This paper estimates the pattern and variation of malaria and diarrhea coexistence in Chikhwawa, a district in Southern Malawi using bivariate multilevel modelling with Bayesian estimation. A probit link was employed to examine hierarchically built data from a survey of individuals (n = 6,727) nested within households (n = 1,380) nested within communities (n = 33). Results show significant malaria [ ] and diarrhea [ ] variations with a strong correlation between them [ ] at household level. There are significant malaria [ ] and diarrhea [ ] variations at community level but with a small correlation [ ] between them. There is also significant correlation between malaria and diarrhea at individual level [ 0.241]. These results suggest a close association between reported malaria-like illness and diarrheal illness especially at household and individual levels in Southern Malawi. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria and diarrhea coexistence; random effects; Bayesian Analysis; bivariate multilevel analysis; household and community variation; Southern Malawi malaria and diarrhea coexistence; random effects; Bayesian Analysis; bivariate multilevel analysis; household and community variation; Southern Malawi
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Masangwi, S.; Ferguson, N.; Grimason, A.; Morse, T.; Kazembe, L. The Pattern of Variation between Diarrhea and Malaria Coexistence with Corresponding Risk Factors in, Chikhwawa, Malawi: A Bivariate Multilevel Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 8526-8541.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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