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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7990-8008; doi:10.3390/ijerph120707990

PM2.5 in Urban and Rural Nursery Schools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Trace Elements Analysis

1
Department of Air Protection, Silesian University of Technology, 22B Konarskiego St., Gliwice 44-100, Poland
2
Institute of Mathematics, Silesian University of Technology, 23 Kaszubska St., Gliwice 44-100, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gary Adamkiewicz and M. Patricia Fabian
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality: Exposures and Occupant Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1085 KB, uploaded 14 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nursery schools is an emerging public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than older children. Among air pollutants, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is of the greatest interest mainly due to its strong association with acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In this paper, we present concentrations of PM2.5 and the composition of its trace elements at naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter and spring seasons. The results indicate there is a problem with elevated concentrations of PM2.5 inside the examined classrooms. The children’s exposure to trace elements was different based on localization and season. PM2.5 concentration and its trace element composition have been studied using correlation coefficients between the different trace elements, the enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA allowed the identification of the three components: anthropogenic and geogenic sources (37.2%), soil dust contaminated by sewage sludge dumping (18.6%) and vehicular emissions (19.5%). View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor air quality; children; PM2.5; trace elements; enrichment factor (EF); principal component analysis (PCA) indoor air quality; children; PM2.5; trace elements; enrichment factor (EF); principal component analysis (PCA)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mainka, A.; Zajusz-Zubek, E.; Kaczmarek, K. PM2.5 in Urban and Rural Nursery Schools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Trace Elements Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7990-8008.

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