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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7519-7540; doi:10.3390/ijerph120707519

Manganese-Induced Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s Disease: Shared and Distinguishable Features

Neuroscience Department, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074, USA
Graduate Program in Public Health, Department of Pathology, Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Center of Health Science, State University of Londrina, Parana 10011, Brazil
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Institute for Cellular & Molecular Biology, and Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 18 November 2014 / Revised: 12 December 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 6 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [724 KB, uploaded 6 July 2015]


Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element necessary for physiological processes that support development, growth and neuronal function. Secondary to elevated exposure or decreased excretion, Mn accumulates in the basal ganglia region of the brain and may cause a parkinsonian-like syndrome, referred to as manganism. The present review discusses the advances made in understanding the essentiality and neurotoxicity of Mn. We review occupational Mn-induced parkinsonism and the dynamic modes of Mn transport in biological systems, as well as the detection and pharmacokinetic modeling of Mn trafficking. In addition, we review some of the shared similarities, pathologic and clinical distinctions between Mn-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease. Where possible, we review the influence of Mn toxicity on dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate neurotransmitter levels and function. We conclude with a survey of the preventive and treatment strategies for manganism and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). View Full-Text
Keywords: manganese-induced parkinsonism; manganese neurotoxicity; Parkinson’s disease (PD); manganism; neurodegenerative diseases manganese-induced parkinsonism; manganese neurotoxicity; Parkinson’s disease (PD); manganism; neurodegenerative diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kwakye, G.F.; Paoliello, M.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Bowman, A.B.; Aschner, M. Manganese-Induced Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s Disease: Shared and Distinguishable Features. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7519-7540.

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