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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6979-7001; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606979

Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation) Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River

1
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, NO-0106 Oslo, Norway
2
Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mieke Uyttendaele, Eelco Franz and Oliver Schlüter
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1176 KB, uploaded 17 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; fecal indicator bacteria; E. coli; municipal measures; irrigation water; fecal contamination source water quality; fecal indicator bacteria; E. coli; municipal measures; irrigation water; fecal contamination source
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Johannessen, G.S.; Wennberg, A.C.; Nesheim, I.; Tryland, I. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation) Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6979-7001.

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