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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6933-6945; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606933

Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Community Diversity and Water Quality during the Reservoir Thermal Stratification

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, No.13, YanTa Road, Xi'an 710055, China
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Academic Editors: Nicholas Frederick Gray and Panagiotis Karanis
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Microbial Pollution and Disinfection)
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Abstract

Reservoir thermal stratification drives the water temperature and dissolved oxygen gradient, however, the characteristic of vertical water microbial community during thermal stratification is so far poorly understood. In this work, water bacterial community diversity was determined using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique. The results showed that epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion were formed steadily in the JINPEN drinking water reservoir. Water temperature decreased steadily from the surface (23.11 °C) to the bottom (9.17 °C). Total nitrogen ranged from 1.07 to 2.06 mg/L and nitrate nitrogen ranged from 0.8 to 1.84 mg/L. The dissolved oxygen concentration decreased sharply below 50 m, and reached zero at 65 m. The Miseq sequencing revealed a total of 4127 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% similarity, which were affiliated with 15 phyla including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Caldiserica, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. The highest Shannon diversity was 4.41 in 45 m, and the highest Chao 1 diversity was 506 in 5 m. Rhodobacter dominated in 55 m (23.24%) and 65 m (12.58%). Prosthecobacter dominated from 0.5 to 50 m. The heat map profile and redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated significant difference in vertical water bacterial community composition in the reservoir. Meanwhile, water quality properties including dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen have a dramatic influence on vertical distribution of bacterial communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: reservoir; thermal stratification; water bacterial community; high-throughput sequencing reservoir; thermal stratification; water bacterial community; high-throughput sequencing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.-H.; Chen, S.-N.; Huang, T.-L.; Ma, W.-X.; Xu, J.-L.; Sun, X. Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Community Diversity and Water Quality during the Reservoir Thermal Stratification. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6933-6945.

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