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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6894-6918; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606894

Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
2
Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rao Bhamidiammarri and Kiran Tota-Maharaj
Received: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1126 KB, uploaded 16 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

A microbial consortium that is able to grow in wheat bran (WB) medium and decolorize the carcinogenic azo dye Congo red (CR) was developed. The microbial consortium was immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Batch studies with the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium showed complete removal of CR dye (100 mg·L−1) within 12 h at pH 7.5 and temperature 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic conditions. Additionally, 92% American Dye Manufactureing Institute (ADMI) removal for real textile effluent (RTE, 50%) was also observed within 20 h under the same conditions. An upflow column reactor containing PUF-immobilized microbial consortium achieved 99% CR dye (100 mg·L−1) and 92% ADMI removal of RTE (50%) at 35 and 20 mL·h−l flow rates, respectively. Consequent reduction in TOC (83 and 79%), COD (85 and 83%) and BOD (79 and 78%) of CR dye and RTE were also observed, which suggested mineralization. The decolorization process was traced to be enzymatic as treated samples showed significant induction of oxidoreductive enzymes. The proposed biodegradation pathway of the dye revealed the formation of lower molecular weight compounds. Toxicity studies with a plant bioassay and acute tests indicated that the PUF-immobilized microbial consortium favors detoxification of the dye and textile effluents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Congo red; microbial consortium; immobilization; column bioreactor; decolorization; mineralization Congo red; microbial consortium; immobilization; column bioreactor; decolorization; mineralization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lade, H.; Govindwar, S.; Paul, D. Mineralization and Detoxification of the Carcinogenic Azo Dye Congo Red and Real Textile Effluent by a Polyurethane Foam Immobilized Microbial Consortium in an Upflow Column Bioreactor. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6894-6918.

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