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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6700-6709; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606700

Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

1
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
2
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
3
Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 4 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
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Abstract

Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation; microfiltration; membrane flux; organic matter; membrane fouling coagulation; microfiltration; membrane flux; organic matter; membrane fouling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Song, Y.; Dong, B.; Gao, N.; Deng, Y. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6700-6709.

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