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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5177-5195; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505177

Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Fluoroquinolones: Prevalence in a University Hospital and Possible Mechanisms

1
Medical Experimental Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, 804 Shengli Street, Yinchuan City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 750004, China
2
School of Laboratory Medicine, Ningxia Medical University, 1160 Shengli Street, Yinchuan City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 750004, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
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Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical distribution and genotyping of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, its resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the possible mechanisms of this drug resistance. Methods: S. maltophilia isolates were collected from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Northwestern China during the period between 2010 and 2012, and were identified to the species level with a fully automated microbiological system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for S. maltophilia with the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline, ceftazidime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against S. maltophilia were assessed using the agar dilution method, and changes in the MIC of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were observed after the addition of reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor. Fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected in S. maltophilia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and the expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes was determined using a quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was employed to genotype identified S. maltophilia isolates. Results: A total of 426 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from the university hospital from 2010 to 2012, consisting of 10.1% of total non-fermentative bacteria. The prevalence of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistance was 32.4%, 21.9% and 13.2% in the 114 S. maltophilia isolates collected from 2012, respectively. Following reserpine treatment, 19 S. maltophilia isolates positive for efflux pump were identified, and high expression of smeD and smeF genes was detected in two resistant isolates. gyrA, parC, smeD, smeE and smeF genes were detected in all 114 S. maltophilia isolates, while smqnr gene was found in 25.4% of total isolates. Glu-Lys mutation (GAA-AAA) was detected at the 151th amino acid of the gyrA gene, while Gly-Arg mutation (GGC-CGC) was found at the 37th amino acid of the parC gene. However, no significant difference was observed in the prevalence of gyrA or parC mutation between fluoroquinolone-resistant and -susceptible isolates (p> 0.05). The smqnr gene showed 92% to 99% heterogenicity among the 14 S. maltophilia clinical isolates. PFGE of 29 smqnr gene-positive S. maltophilia clinical isolates revealed 25 PFGE genotypes and 28 subgenotypes. Conclusions: Monitoring the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. maltophilia is of great significance for the clinical therapy of bacterial infections. Reserpine is effective to inhibit the active efflux of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin on S. maltophilia and reduce MIC of fluoroquinolones against the bacteria. The expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes correlates with the resistance of S. maltophilia to fluoroquinolones. View Full-Text
Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; antimicrobial resistance; reserpine; fluoroquinolone; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; antimicrobial resistance; reserpine; fluoroquinolone; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jia, W.; Wang, J.; Xu, H.; Li, G. Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Fluoroquinolones: Prevalence in a University Hospital and Possible Mechanisms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5177-5195.

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