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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5061-5075; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505061

Effect of Naturally Occurring Ozone Air Pollution Episodes on Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Utah, 26 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Epidemiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 19 March 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
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Abstract

This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; ozone; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exhaled breath condensate; oxidative stress; airway inflammation air pollution; ozone; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exhaled breath condensate; oxidative stress; airway inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pirozzi, C.; Sturrock, A.; Weng, H.-Y.; Greene, T.; Scholand, M.B.; Kanner, R.; III, R.P. Effect of Naturally Occurring Ozone Air Pollution Episodes on Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5061-5075.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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