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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4481-4501; doi:10.3390/ijerph120504481

Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

1
Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences (EHGES), University of Texas School of Public Health at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Division of Clinical and Translational Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Biostatistics/Epidemiology/Research Design (BERD) Component, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences (CCTS), University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
4
Department of Child & Adolescent Health, The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica
5
Human Genetics Center, University of Texas School of Public Health at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
6
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77054, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 15 February 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [736 KB, uploaded 23 April 2015]

Abstract

The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; mercury; aluminum; arsenic; cadmium; manganese; cord blood; newborns; Jamaica lead; mercury; aluminum; arsenic; cadmium; manganese; cord blood; newborns; Jamaica
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahbar, M.H.; Samms-Vaughan, M.; Dickerson, A.S.; Hessabi, M.; Bressler, J.; Desai, C.C.; Shakespeare-Pellington, S.; Reece, J.-A.; Morgan, R.; Loveland, K.A.; Grove, M.L.; Boerwinkle, E. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4481-4501.

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