Next Article in Journal
Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities
Previous Article in Journal
Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 4047-4059; doi:10.3390/ijerph120404047

Emergency Hospital Visits in Association with Volcanic Ash, Dust Storms and Other Sources of Ambient Particles: A Time-Series Study in Reykjavík, Iceland

1
Centre of Public Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Stapi v/Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
2
Unit of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
3
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspítali University Hospital-Fossvogur, 108 Reykjavík, Iceland
4
Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Vatnsmýrarvegi 16, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
5
Unit of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
6
Institute of Earth Sciences, School of Engineering and Natural Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
7
Environmental Agency of Iceland, Suðurlandsbraut 24, 108 Reykjavík, Iceland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1176 KB, uploaded 13 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Volcanic ash contributed significantly to particulate matter (PM) in Iceland following the eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. This study aimed to investigate the association between different PM sources and emergency hospital visits for cardiorespiratory causes from 2007 to 2012. Indicators of PM10 sources; “volcanic ash”, “dust storms”, or “other sources” (traffic, fireworks, and re-suspension) on days when PM10 exceeded the daily air quality guideline value of 50 µg/m3 were entered into generalized additive models, adjusted for weather, time trend and co-pollutants. The average number of daily emergency hospital visits was 10.5. PM10 exceeded the air quality guideline value 115 out of 2191 days; 20 days due to volcanic ash, 14 due to dust storms (two days had both dust storm and ash contribution) and 83 due to other sources. High PM10 levels from volcanic ash tended to be significantly associated with the emergency hospital visits; estimates ranged from 4.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.6, 9.2%) per day of exposure in unadjusted models to 7.3% (95% CI: −0.4, 15.5%) in adjusted models. Dust storms were not consistently associated with daily emergency hospital visits and other sources tended to show a negative association. We found some evidence indicating that volcanic ash particles were more harmful than particles from other sources, but the results were inconclusive and should be interpreted with caution. View Full-Text
Keywords: particle matter; volcanic ash; dust storms; emergency hospital visits; respiratory health; cardiovascular health particle matter; volcanic ash; dust storms; emergency hospital visits; respiratory health; cardiovascular health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Carlsen, H.K.; Gislason, T.; Forsberg, B.; Meister, K.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Jóhannsson, T.; Finnbjornsdottir, R.; Oudin, A. Emergency Hospital Visits in Association with Volcanic Ash, Dust Storms and Other Sources of Ambient Particles: A Time-Series Study in Reykjavík, Iceland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4047-4059.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top