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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3915-3925; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403915

Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

1
Cultex Laboratories GmbH, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 21, 30625 Hannover, Germany
2
Institute of Pathology, KRH Klinikum Nordstadt, Haltenhoffstr. 41, 30167 Hannover, Germany
3
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Bielefeld Evangelical Hospital, Burgsteig 13, 33617 Bielefeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 8 April 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [718 KB, uploaded 8 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarette; smoking; tobacco; nicotine; cytotoxicity; normal bronchial epithelial cells; air-liquid interface; CULTEX® RFS; public health electronic cigarette; smoking; tobacco; nicotine; cytotoxicity; normal bronchial epithelial cells; air-liquid interface; CULTEX® RFS; public health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Scheffler, S.; Dieken, H.; Krischenowski, O.; Förster, C.; Branscheid, D.; Aufderheide, M. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3915-3925.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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