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Response to Bifulco Comments on Triassi et al. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Reviewer on the “Triangle of Death”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1216–1236
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 3362-3380; doi:10.3390/ijerph120303362

Efficiency of a Multi-Soil-Layering System on Wastewater Treatment Using Environment-Friendly Filter Materials

Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 13 December 2014 / Revised: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
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Abstract

The multi-soil-layering (MSL) system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML) and the permeable layer (PL). In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%–99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3-N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-soil-layering system (MSL); zeolite; expanded clay aggregate; oyster shells; granular activated carbon multi-soil-layering system (MSL); zeolite; expanded clay aggregate; oyster shells; granular activated carbon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, C.-C.; Wang, P.-H. Efficiency of a Multi-Soil-Layering System on Wastewater Treatment Using Environment-Friendly Filter Materials. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3362-3380.

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