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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2501-2520;

Factors Associated with Atopy in Toddlers: A Case-Control Study

School of Nursing, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Central Health Medical Practice, Hong Kong, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 29 December 2014 / Revised: 8 February 2015 / Accepted: 17 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [710 KB, uploaded 25 February 2015]


In this case-control study the association between the approaches used to feed infants, together with known family and environmental factors, and the occurrence of atopic illness in toddlers between the ages of 4 months to 3 years in Hong Kong was examined. A total of 206 subjects were recruited from April to June of 2014. The results obtained by binary logistic regression indicated that atopy is associated with boys (OR 2.072, CI 1.089–3.941), the maternal use of antibiotics in utero or while breast feeding (OR 2.276, CI 1.151–4.504), the later commencement of mixed feeding (OR 2.497, CI 1.025–6.082), breast feeding exclusively for 3 months (OR 1.972, CI 1.009–3.857), and having a mother who was diagnosed with eczema (OR 4.510, CI 1.764–11.530). Although an exclusive reliance on breast feeding has been shown to be predictive of atopy among toddlers, the positive qualities of breast milk cannot be ignored. A further study of the contents and nutritional values of breast milk is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast-feeding; maternal antibiotic use; atopy; toddlers breast-feeding; maternal antibiotic use; atopy; toddlers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yung, J.; Yuen, J.W.M.; Ou, Y.; Loke, A.Y. Factors Associated with Atopy in Toddlers: A Case-Control Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2501-2520.

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