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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15900-15924; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215027

Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

Graduate School of Land Management and Regional Planning (ESAD), Laval University, 2325 des Biblotheques Street, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Harry Timmermans, Astrid Kemperman and Pauline van den Berg
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of the Built Environment on Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8727 KB, uploaded 18 December 2015]   |  


Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. View Full-Text
Keywords: built environment; active travel; household lifecycle stage; Japan built environment; active travel; household lifecycle stage; Japan

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Waygood, E.O.D.; Sun, Y.; Letarte, L. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15900-15924.

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