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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15434-15448; doi:10.3390/ijerph121214995

Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound

1
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
2
School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
4
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
5
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
6
Water Resources and Environmental Institute, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361005, China
7
Department of Municipal Engineering, Zhejiang University of Water Resource and Electric Power, Hangzhou 361018, China
8
Zhejiang Province Environmental Monitoring Center, Hangzhou 310012, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rao Bhamidiammarri and Kiran Tota-Maharaj
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [953 KB, uploaded 9 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

The occurrence of natural estrogens including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which can be excreted by both humans and animals, and can enter the aqueous environment along with the discharge of domestic sewage, is a major concern since this may represent a serious health risk to humans even at extremely trace levels (ng·L−1). Simultaneous degradation of three coexisting steroid estrogens (SEs) in aqueous solutions by coupled ultrasound and KMnO4 systems (KMnO4/ultrasound) were investigated to find out whether there is a competitive degradation of multiple contaminants or not. Results indicate that the degradation ratios of target SEs were all more than 50% after 120 min reaction contact, greatly enhanced when compared with the single KMnO4 (2 mg·L−1) oxidation of E2 (37.0%), EE2 (34.4%), and E1 (34.0%), and the single sonochemical oxidation of E2 (37.1%), EE2 (31.1%), and E1 (29.7%). In the adopted processes, the degradations of SEs fit the first-order kinetic reaction, with different reaction rates. Kinetic parameters revealed there was little difference between coexisting SEs, which means there was almost no competitive degradation. The removal efficiency and degradation rate of SEs in natural water was higher than those in pure water, which suggested that the coupled KMnO4/ultrasound technology had prospective applications in the removal of complex contaminants in actual drinking water treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: coexisting pollutant; competitive degradation; drinking water treatment; KMnO4/ultrasound; steroid estrogens coexisting pollutant; competitive degradation; drinking water treatment; KMnO4/ultrasound; steroid estrogens
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, J.; Tang, K.; Zhu, S.; Ma, X.; Zhang, K.; Song, Y.; Li, X.; Li, Q.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, K. Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15434-15448.

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