Next Article in Journal
Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam
Previous Article in Journal
Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14364-14381; doi:10.3390/ijerph121114364

Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China

1
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
2
Department of Hygiene, School of Public Health, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou, Hunan 423000, China
3
Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 14 July 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1387 KB, uploaded 12 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

This study aimed to describe the households’ choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10−9~3.62 × 10−5. The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water’s highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; heavy metals; risk assessment; environmental epidemiology; mining activities drinking water; heavy metals; risk assessment; environmental epidemiology; mining activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, X.; He, L.; Li, J.; Yang, F.; Tan, H. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 14364-14381.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top