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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14068-14083; doi:10.3390/ijerph121114068

Carotenoid Content in Organically Produced Wheat: Relevance for Human Nutritional Health on Consumption

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal Campus, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
Department of Plant Breeding, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 101, SE-14 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 7 September 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
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In this study, 33 spring and winter wheat genotypes were analyzed for carotenoid content and composition. Investigated genotypes were divided into four genotype groups i.e., spelt, landraces, old cultivars and primitive wheat. The results showed a high level of variation among the genotypes in amount of carotenoids in the grain with high values (around 4 mg/Kg) especially in one of the genotypes—Öland 8. Lutein was the most common carotenoid in all the investigated genotypes, contributing 70%–90% of the carotenoids in the grain. Variation in carotenoid content and composition was found not only among genotypes, but also between genotype groups and wheat type, although there is a need to analyze more genotypes to confirm the differences found between groups and types. This study showed that 40% of the daily requirements of lutein can be achieved from the genotypes with the highest lutein content (Öland 8) produced using organic farming through the average human consumption of 200 grams of wheat per day. Furthermore, this study showed, by the use of principal component analyses, an opportunity to select genotypes combining high values of certain nutritional compounds. By a further breeding and commercial production of such genotypes, the nutritional value of wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; food requirements; genotypes; lutein; spring and winter wheat carotenoids; food requirements; genotypes; lutein; spring and winter wheat

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hussain, A.; Larsson, H.; Kuktaite, R.; Olsson, M.E.; Johansson, E. Carotenoid Content in Organically Produced Wheat: Relevance for Human Nutritional Health on Consumption. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 14068-14083.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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