Next Article in Journal
Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12958-12976; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012958

The Effects of Targeted Deliveries of Lovastatin and Tocotrienol on Ossification-Related Gene Expressions in Fracture Healing in an Osteoporosis Rat Model

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 1 October 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [948 KB, uploaded 16 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Osteoporotic drugs are used to prevent fragility fractures, but their role in fracture healing still remains unknown. Thus, alternative agents with suitable mode of delivery are needed to promote fracture healing. This study was performed to investigate the effects of direct deliveries of lovastatin and tocotrienol to fracture sites on ossification-related gene expression in fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley female rats were divided into six groups. Group I comprised the sham-operated rats, while Groups II–VI were ovariectomized rats. After 8 weeks, the right tibiae of all rats were fractured and stabilized. Group I and Group II were given two single injections of lovastatin and tocotrienol carriers. Group III was given an estrogen preparation at 64.5 µg/kg daily via oral gavages. Group IV was injected with lovastatin particles (750 µg/kg), while Group V was injected with tocotrienol particles (60 mg/kg). Group VI received two single injections of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles and 60 mg/kg tocotrienol particles. After 4 weeks, the gene expressions were measured. Group VI showed significantly higher gene expressions of osteocalcin, BMP-2, VEGF-α, and RUNX-2 compared to Group II. In conclusion, combined treatment of lovastatin and tocotrienol upregulated the expression of genes related to fracture healing. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporotic fracture healing; lovastatin; tocotrienol; targeted delivery; fracture healing genes osteoporotic fracture healing; lovastatin; tocotrienol; targeted delivery; fracture healing genes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrahim, N.€�.; Mohamed, N.; Soelaiman, I.N.; Shuid, A.N. The Effects of Targeted Deliveries of Lovastatin and Tocotrienol on Ossification-Related Gene Expressions in Fracture Healing in an Osteoporosis Rat Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 12958-12976.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top